Wednesday, September 2, 2020
It Is All About You - Essay Example It is a lot of not equivalent to the United States. My way of life is very profoundly inundated in custom. As a Muslim, I follow an a lot firmer example of rules than a large portion of my young people, and, now and again, it is a touch of irritating to see a straightforward lack of respect for the self that I see on college grounds. In light of my strict foundation, I am a lot firmer about what I eat and drink. The greatest affecting issue on who I am today is absolutely the accentuation on family. Everything extending from my favored profession course to my desire for progress is attached in my commitment to my family. As earlier showed, my folks have an exceptionally customary, Islamic conclusion concerning the universe. Things are really clear and direct; this suggests it is possible that it is in concurrence with the Quran and ought to be performed unswervingly or it is against the resolve of Allah and ought to never be finished. I have consistently complied with my folks and I have never scrutinized their directions to me in case they consider it to be insubordination. In any case, as I become more seasoned, I basically start to perceive significantly more cautiously with what they have instructed me. I have found that their severity with respect to my instruction has taken tightly to me and created. I as of now hold myself to as extraordinary a standard in my training as they do, if not more noteworthy. All things considered, there are a few degrees where we shift profoundly, be that as it may. For example, I realize that a portion of the movies I watch or music I tune in to would not be gotte n well by my folks. I think about this to accomplish more with a generational hole than a distinction in the way of life from Saudi Arabia to the United States. I have never experienced any clear type of assumption from the older folks in my family. Truth be told, the absence of any mention to an issue is the biggest, and maybe significantly progressively significant, type of bias. As opposed to contradict issue with somebody I realize they see unique and not great, it resembles void in the conversation, a plain disparity of any
Posted by Dirk Mcdermott at 10:12 AM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
This paper examines the idea of realism by Charles Sanders Pierce and contrasts it and Descartes ideas of subjectivity. Charles Sanders Pierce is viewed as the dad of Pragmatism. This paper sets this way of thinking against the rationalistic and latent way of thinking of Descartes. It portrays how Pierce in his article How To Make Our Ideas Clear set out to free the disarray about the thought from clear and particular thoughts in the conventional rationale. This guideline originates from the thought of fixing conviction as a propensity for imagining that will in general give a reasonable manual for activity. Pierce begins his paper by censuring the conventional rationale for furnishing us with just slick phrasings about the thought of clear and unmistakable thoughts. As he noticed that an unmistakable Idea is characterized as one which is captured that it will be perceived any place it is met with thus that no other will be confused with it (Descartes: Meditations). We will compose a custom paper test on Logic and Rationalism or on the other hand any comparable subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Pierce noticed that this meaning of clearness is simply perfectly created words and nothing, since it just adds up to commonality of thoughts and an abstract authority, which might be completely mixed up. An unmistakable thought then again is characterized as containing nothing, which isn't clear. Puncture says that definition in roundabout as well as it prompts the theoretical meaning of uniqueness, which has nothing to do with the real useful concerns. Pierce further says that it is presently time to define new idea and a strategy for achieving progressively ideal clearness of thought.
Posted by Dirk Mcdermott at 3:21 PM
Friday, August 21, 2020
The composing titled Ã¢â¬Å"We Will Not Be Shaken,Ã¢â¬ composed by Natalie A., discusses Christian Music. Her composing left me feeling revived and content. Natalie A. splendidly portrays Ã¢â¬Å"We Will Not Be ShakenÃ¢â¬ by Bethel Music in this article. I can relate a great deal to this article. I have tuned in to such a large number of tunes referenced and I love the amazing way Natalie gave verses from a portion of the tunes. For instance, I thought that it was extremely useful when Natalie clarifies a portion of the verses to Ã¢â¬Å"Reckless LoveÃ¢â¬ by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"The tune references the illustration of the lost sheep, where a shepherd leaves his group of 99 sheep so as to locate the one sheep that is lost.Ã¢â¬ As I read the verses she gave, maybe I could hear Cory Asbury singing them himself. I additionally love the wonderful way Natalie says, Ã¢â¬Å"At the finish of the race we will be grasped by all of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s love. We will compose a custom paper test on We Will Not Be Shaken or on the other hand any comparable theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Ã¢â¬ I feel thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a wonderful message everybody ought to know about.
Posted by Dirk Mcdermott at 1:03 PM
Wednesday, May 27, 2020
There are only a few times in your life when youÃ¢â¬â¢ll look at test scores and see a number like 1200 or 2000. Wait, waitÃ¢â¬âthereÃ¢â¬â¢s only one time, really: thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the SAT. Ninety-nine percent of the tests you take are scored as a fraction or a percentage, so what gives? WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the point of putting SAT scores in this bizarro range of 600 to 2400? There are a few reasons: 1. The Wrong Answer Penalty: Ã The SAT isnÃ¢â¬â¢t scored just by counting how many correct answers you got; your incorrect answers also count to your total score. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s rightÃ¢â¬âyouÃ¢â¬â¢re punished for your mistakes. In theory, itÃ¢â¬â¢s better to leave an answer blank than it is to get it wrong. In practice, that ends up not really being the case; youÃ¢â¬â¢ll definitely want to guess if youÃ¢â¬â¢re stumped on the test, especially if you can rule out one of the wrong answer choices. Anyway, the system is pretty simple. A wrong answer is worth -Ã ¼ of a right answer. So if you get 1 question right, then 4 wrong, the correct answer is completely canceled out. Now, imagine you had a really hard time on the test and got more than four times as many incorrect answers as you did correct answers. That would lead to a negative score, right? But thatÃ¢â¬â¢s nonsense. Test scores donÃ¢â¬â¢t go negative. So the raw score, calculated by the number of correct and incorrect answers you got, has to be converted into a different scale, a scale that is only positive. 2. Standardization: Ã If you take the SAT in May, then again in October, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a chance youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see harder questions on one test or the other. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not a pattern, thoughÃ¢â¬âitÃ¢â¬â¢s not as though SAT Math is always harder in the spring (thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a common myth, but it is just a myth). Instead, there are just normal variations in the test difficulty. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty much impossible to create two tests with the exact same difficulty level. So if you answer 70% of the questions correctly on SAT critical reading one month, but only 65% correctly four months later, itÃ¢â¬â¢s likely the second test was just a bit harder by chance. To deal with that, the College Board, who makes the SAT, scales scores according to how hard the test wasÃ¢â¬âyou could end up with the exact same score on the 200 to 800 scale for that section from both test dates. 3. Distinction:Ã This is the biggest reason, really. A high score on your algebra final might be a 95% or even 100%. The average score in the class might be closer to 80%. But if the SAT were on a 1 to 100 scale, the average score would be more like 50 (the average SAT score is near 1500, which is halfway between the minimum 600 and the maximum 2400). It would give the wrong impression of how well you actually did on the test, because people would immediately associate that 50 with a 50%, a failing grade, which an average SAT score absolutely is not. So taking the score out of the 1 to 100 scale is necessary. But why 600 to 2400? The truth is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty arbitrary. If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve taken or studied the ACT, you know that test is scored on a scale of 1 to 36. The PSAT, meanwhile, is from 60 to 240. The GRE is scored from 260 to 340, the LSAT from 120 to 180, and the TOEFL paper test from 310 to 677 (just to screw with people, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure). Any standardized test has to pick a range of numbers to use. Test makers donÃ¢â¬â¢t want the scores of their test to be easily confused with the scores of another test, so they choose number ranges that donÃ¢â¬â¢t look like those of other testsÃ¢â¬â¢. Get calibrated:Ã If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not sure how to read your score, then forget about the actual number: just look at the percentiles. That shows you what percentage of people you scored higher than. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the 60th percentile, for instance, you scored higher than 60% of the other SAT takers. That gives a much better picture of where you stand and exactly how good your score is. This post was written by Lucas Fink, resident SAT expert at Magoosh, a leader in SAT Prep. You can learn more about Magoosh on our SAT blog. Related Resources: Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã 5 Fatal Flaws to Avoid in Your College Application Essays Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã GMAT, GRE, SAT, and All Things Test Prep Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã College Application Tips for Parents
Posted by Dirk Mcdermott at 2:37 AM
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Abstract This paper will discuss the history of special education including a timeline of the significant events that happens in the history of special education. It would further discuss the laws associated with Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Furthermore, this paper will address the current and future challenges the laws have on special education. All children are created differently with different talents and abilities. Some are tall, others are short. Some are big, others are small. Not only are their physical attributes different, but children also adapt to different teaching styles. However, the differences among most students are reasonably minute and it allows for those children to be taught in a generalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The new rules were to supply a collection of regulations in which school districts are required to abide by when issuing an education to students with disabilities. In 1990, the Education for all Handicapped Children Act was changed to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This amendment allowed for several alterations to the previous law. An important change was the additional transition services for students with disabilities. At this point, school districts were mandated to view results and supporting children with disabilities in switching from high school to postsecon dary life. Although the history of special education has come a long way, there are still many challenges with special education. Some of the current issues are feelings of isolation, lack of administrative support, too little time with students, and a teacher shortage. Recruiting talented teachers is imperative in order to provide a high quality programs necessary for students with disabilities. The design of special education in many schools leads to increased isolation. Teachers become isolated from the teams and collaborative structured models of education in the 21st century when they go in their classroom and shut their doors. Teachers of students with disabilities must also have the ability to connect to resources andShow MoreRelatedHistory of Special Education1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHistory of Special Education The field of education has been around for a very long time, but special education has not always been around. In fact, for many years it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t even accepted in the world of education. In the past, students with special needs were often not allowed to go to public school because of their disabilities. However, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, they have a right to free public education and most of the time benefit greatly from some of the resources that are available. Special educationRead MoreHistory of Special Education1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHistory of Special Education By: Kenyata York December 5, 2012 SPE 526 ABSTRACT Individuals with disabilities have the same passion, drive, determination and ambitions of traditional students. Students living with disabilities are just as capable of learning and retaining information just like traditional students in the classroom. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, there are an abundance of laws and regulations that are in place to protect and educate individuals with disabilities. However, the idea ofRead More History of Special Education Essay1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHistory of Special Education Introduction Special education has faced many changes during the last century. During this time there have been many opinions on the way students with differences should be taught and treated. This paper will discuss the history of special education during the twentieth century. We will also discuss the laws associated with Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Finally we will discuss the current and future challenges that the laws have on special educationRead MoreHistory of Special Education Essay1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshead: History of Special Education History of Special Education Marie Cudia Grand Canyon University: SPE526: Educating Learners with Diverse Needs April 2, 2012 History of Special Education The history of Special Education just as any history; is a long battle that has been fought by many who cared in order to bring us to where we are today. Its Journey has and will be never ending; since society is forever evolving. We will be fighting for equal rights in education andRead MoreSpecial Education: a Look at the History1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSpecial Education: A Look at the History Tracy Len Baier November 23, 2011 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to address the historical landmarks and legislation that have formed and created our current special education system. We will take a journey from the start of public education and its exclusion of special needs students to the current push for inclusion of all students learning within a general education classroom. The author will also share some of the pros and cons ofRead MoreHistory of Special Education Law1021 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHistory of Special Education Law Grand Canyon University Special Education Litigation and Law SPE-350 Virginia Murray August 11, 2013 History of Special Education Law Throughout the ages, people with disabilities have been hidden away at homes or institutions and were often not educated. This was common practice and as such, when the education system was designed, children with disabilities were not even considered. Then, starting soon after the civil rights movement in the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s, aRead More History Of Special Education Essay1001 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Special education has changed in many different ways throughout the last century. The views of they way students with differences should be taught and treated have changed as people have become more open minded. The education laws have also seen a turn about. One major area of education was in a desperate need of changed opinions and beliefs. Education for children with learning problems has emerged from no education to special funding and programs especially for those individuals with learningRead MoreEssay about History of Special Education1088 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHistory of Special Education The recent history of special education began in 1975 when Congress passed the Education for all Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA). The law was renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education act (IDEA) in 1990. These laws made it mandatory for schools to meet the special needs of all students. Special education was around prior to 1975, but in most cases in a very different manner than it is today. Special education in its earliest form usually happened in theRead MoreThe History and Outlooks and a Job in Special Education1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSpecial Education Teaching students with special needs is highly rewarding. Ã¢â¬Å"Every child deserves a champion- an adult who will never give up on them, who understands the power of connection, and insists that they become the best they can possibly be.Ã¢â¬ (Pierson). Special education teachers work with and serve as a mentor to students who have a wide range of learning, mental, emotional and physical disabilities. The history of special education dates back to Europe in the early 16th century. SpecialRead MoreEssay on History of Special Education in Public Schools2926 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesHistory of the Treatment of Special Education in Public Schools The Educate America Act was passed in 1994 and was a step toward equality of education between children with and without disabilities. According to Olson and Platt (2000), the Educate America Act Ã¢â¬Å"represents a national framework for education reform to improve our system, policies, standards, and most importantly, outcomes for all students.Ã¢â¬ This legislation outlined goals that were very broad and simplistic, but also inspiring to
Posted by Dirk Mcdermott at 8:33 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Kateryna Stoianova History of Ancient Philosophy Fall 2016 Final Exam Ã¢â¬â Sec. A (10:00) Question #1 A principle is a fundamental source or basis of something. A principle cannot be proven, because to prove something we have to go back to the basics and principle is basis of everything. Although, what most philosophers seem to be doing to prove the validity of their theories is by showing that if we accept something else as a principle it would make no sense. The Pre-Socratic philosophers were all searching for that one fundamental principle of reality that everything is based on. That factor was called arche, which literally means Ã¢â¬â beginning, origin or a source of something. The Pre-Socratic philosophers are called that because they all came before Socrates, and he is a major figure in ancient philosophy, because he was the first person to develop it as a distinct kind of knowledge. Most of the early philosophers were looking for a materialistic arche. Thales of Miletus (624-546 BC) is considered to be the first philosopher and he considered water to be the fundamental principle of everything. He thought that all things were composed of water, because it could take all three forms (liquid, solid and gas). He also observed that all living things needed water to stay alive and grow. Aristotle wrote about ThalesÃ¢â¬â¢ views: Ã¢â¬Å"nourishment of all things is moist, and that even the hot itself comes to be from this and lives on this Ã¢â¬âgetting this idea from thisShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Culture and History of China1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgreatly influenced Chinas economy, literature, and philosophy. Not only have each one of Chinas historical and contemporary leaders had an impact on China as a nation, but many of their ideas have flourished throughout literature which has allowed other countries around the world to attain those ideas and learn from them. One of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s great leaders whose ideas, theories and philosophical ponderings have had a great impact on Chinas ancient and modern day societies is Master Confucius. ConfuciusRead MoreEssay on Great Religions And Philosophies. : Greek Philosophy.904 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Great Religions and Philosophies. : Greek Philosophy. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In the 6th century B.C, there began a dualism in Greek Philosophy. The development of Greek Philosophy became a compromise between Greek monistic and oriental influences, in other words, a combination of intellectualism and mysticism. Thus began the pre-Socratic philosophy. The interests of pre- Socratic philosophers were centered on the world that surrounds man, the Cosmos. This was during the time of great internalRead MoreThe Myth Of The Atlantis1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPlato, researchers revived the ancient legend of this lost paradise myth. The origin of the myth goes back of course to Plato who describes the Atlantis as a civilization barbaric, greedy luxury and whose decadence provoked the anger of the gods who, punishment, caused a cataclysm that engulfs the city. But, researchers and scientists evidence prove that Atlantis is only a myth. Naddaf, Gerard. The Atlantis Myth: An Introduction to Plato s Later Philosophy of History.Ã Phoenix48.3 (1994): 189-209Read MoreAudience About A Culture Or Sub Culture999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaudience an insight to the lives of the Ancient Greeks and to teach them about Ancient Greece as a culture (Kendall) Introduction (Reagan) Attention Gainer: Here is a quote from a Greek philosopher, Heraclitus, Ã¢â¬Å"day by day, what you chose, what you think and what you do is who you becomeÃ¢â¬ . This quote represents the evolution of Greece from the beginning of Ancient Greek time. Every day, the culture evolved in some way whether it is in architecture, philosophy or any other attribute of culture. ReasonRead MoreThe Basic Principle Of Inquiry1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbeginnings of philosophy were somewhat elementary, but complexity has built as history advances. Philosophy is loosely organized into 2 fields, Western and Eastern. Western philosophy is associated with Ancient Greek, Roman, Western Europe, and later on, the AmericasÃ¢â¬â¢ process of thought. Being that we are predominantly influenced by this field of philosophy (due to our location) it is essential that we must understand the beginnings and the evolution of this ideology. Western philosophy has developedRead MoreThe Philosophy : German Egyptologist Hellmut Brunner Translates The Inscription Of Antef1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAfricana Philosophy German Egyptologist Hellmut Brunner translates the Ã¢â¬Å"Inscription of Antef,Ã¢â¬ which defines a philosopher as: Ã¢â¬Å"[He is the one] whose heart is informed about these things which would be otherwise ignored, the one who is clear-sighted when he is deep into a problem, the one who is moderate in his actions, who penetrates ancient writings, whose advice is [sought] to unravel complications, who is really wise, who instructed his own heart, who stays awake at night as he looks for theRead MoreEssay on Exploring International Psychology1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction In researching the ancient roots of international psychology, I found that I gravitated with special interest to the ancient roots of Greek, Chinese and Indian psychology. In this research, I found myself replaying a statement I read when learning about the hypothesis regarding the history of psychology. This statement is Ã¢â¬Å" It may be possible that parts of history have indeed been chaotic whereas other parts have been linear and progressive and still others have been cyclicalÃ¢â¬ (KingRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Ancient Greece1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnnotated Bibliography Ancient Greece Annotated Bibliography Ancient Greece was the birth place of many sciences, famous philosophers and the arts. A time where humans where constantly discovering many different things, forming new ideas and opinions about life each and every day. Various gods ruled these different city states. Mythology was very huge in Ancient Greece. There are so many different folktales and myths from Ancient Greece. Do you ever wonder if any of those ancient MythÃ¢â¬â¢s were true? EverRead MorePythagoras, Plato, And Plotinus989 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesideas and teachings of other philosophies and then shape their own philosophies from them. Even if they do not outright claim they have done so or that they were influenced by an earlier philosophy, one can still find links between philosophers and their theories. Pythagoras, Plato, and Plotinus, though from all different historical and philosophical periods, formed philosophies similar to one another or built upon aspects from one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s. Pythagoras (Ancient History Encyclopedia) Pythagoras, amRead MoreThe Birth of Religions and Philosophies in the Ancient World1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Birth of Religions and Philosophies in the Ancient World From the beginning of time, people all over the world have wondered where we come from, what our divine purpose in life is, and what we can expect after death. Questions about right and wrong, society and government, and nature and the cosmos, are some of the few wonders that ultimately created some of the earliest philosophies and religions, helping people find peace and explanation to the vast curiosity that still troubles us in modern
Posted by Dirk Mcdermott at 5:40 PM
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: What is the Social Impact Assessment for ICT? Answer: Introducation The social impact assessment in this report focuses on the analysis of nanotechnology and its importance. The report specifically looks at the boom that can be created by nanotechnology if used and developed properly. It is possible to build complex structures with the atomic precision and it is possible with the help of nanotechnology. If nanotechnology is achieved once, it will be enable in development of highly advanced products at lower costs in bulk. Further, when nano-factories will acquire the producing ability of other nano-factories, the production then only is restricted by resources and not by any other means. The social impact assessment looked specifically at the nanotechnology which is described as below- Nanotechnology - It is the field of science and technology. It has been discovered by scientists that material at all dimensions can have different properties in comparison to the same materials at large scale. It can result in endless possibilities of improved devices, materials and structures if we will be able to create understanding of these differences and be able to learn the controlling mechanism of the assembly of small structures (Rathbun and Heally, 2005; Azoulay, Senjen and Foladori 2012). Below are the physical, logical, procedural and social elements of nanotechnology- The physical structure of nanoparticles is that these particles have large surface area because of which they are unique, which leads to the domination of contributions that are made by the small bulk of materials. The nanoparticles are red in color. Gold nanoparticles can melt at low temperatures when compared to gold slabs. Also, in photovoltaic cells the absorption of solar radiation is much higher in nanoparticles as the particles are very small and are able to absorb a greater amount of solar radiation(Mandal 2017). The logical structure of nanoparticles is that they have large surface area to volume ratio which means that the aggregated surface area of the material is much larger than the corresponding bulk material which is having the same mass. As most chemical reactions happen at the surface, it leads to much higher chemical activity (GreenFacts 2017). The social aspect of nanotechnology has contributed towards major changes in the global economy and way of living. But these nanotechnologies pose threats and many uncertainties to the society. This is because the risk which accompanied with their uses is very uncertain. Moreover, their potential social and economic effects also raise questions on their uses with regard to the equity and fairness as many of them are difficult to anticipate (Center for Nanotechnology 2017). Analyze the Ethical Issues The following analysis will highlight the ethical issues associated with the nanotechnology. The analysis will outline the areas of specific concerns which needs to be addressed resulting in advantages of resolving the ethical issues and specific concerns. No matter how successful an innovation is or how useful a technology is, every innovation and technology has to face some issues associated with it whether technical, political, social, ethical or many more. The section highlights some ethical issues in nanotechnology which are in immediate need to be addressed as they may result in risks and turn out in having adverse effects thereby. The concept of nanotechnology is fuzzy and diverse and is currently on great hype. So, it is correct to divide ethical issues into general and specific issues. Specific issues of nanotechnology arise out of applications, technological products and research processes and also the processes of manufacturing right from the laboratory scale to industrial scale. General issues arise out of the way in which programs of nanotechnology are launched, governed and controlled and also depend on the situation in broader societal and scientific concepts. Nanotechnology possesses promising benefits and beneficial results for society and also contributes to the well-being of the humanity as a whole in the case if ethical issues are considered and resolved timely. Specific issues Associated environmental and health issues in new materials- In the current scenario, the most important and urgent issues is the associated environmental and health risks of nano particles. This is due to a substantial gap between transnational and national regulations. It is known from several years that particles having identical chemical position have different properties which depend on their shape and size in the range of nanometer. This further includes thermodynamic, optical, mechanical, electromagnetic, biological, chemical and catalytic properties and also the way in which these particles travel and migrate in the environment and with the help of biological membranes. So it states that a substance can pass the tests of toxicity required for new chemicals in a case the tests are being performed on large particles, despite the fact that small particles of identical substance are toxic in nature. Control issues of new devices- Many nanotechnology aims at making electronic computing devices that should be smaller and faster in nature. In addition to this, devices which are used for emission and signal detection, storage and collection of solar energy, chemical, mechanical, and electrical operations, all are miniaturized at micro level. All these technologies together are able to provide toolbox for various devices and systems of devices which are able to perform complex tasks with utmost autonomy. Because of the reason that many technologies are involved in toolbox extension, it has been called enabling technologies and these results in ethical issues about devices. The new devices may cause changes, get into privacy and can build up a surveillance system with are not detectable or the devices may perform quasi-autonomous decisions, devices may interact with each other and in result, their behavior becomes uncontrollable and unpredictable. In such cases, ethical issues arise w hen devices get uncontrollable and harm humans without the existence of anyone who can be blamed and held responsible for the harm. General issues Ethics education for science students- Education shift implies that at the graduate level in the field of engineering and science, it is necessary to integrate ethics components in science education. In addition to this, ethics education is a way more important and mandatory for engineering students, but not for science education because recent considerations are made for the scientists to perform neutral ethical research. For these reasons, education for ethics must be playing a major role at least in all the field of nanotechnologies. Technology governance- In many countries, there is a problematic trend in national and international policy of science due to the exemplification of the recent launch of national nanotechnology initiative. It undermines the models of deliberative and democratic making of decisions. Because of the buzzword nanotechnology many diverse technologies tend to disregard and resulting to the situation of which nanotechnology to support and which not. Hype has been generated of this term without analyzing the pros and cons of each technology involved. These have led to the creation of exaggerated hopes and fears in the minds of the public that undermines technology assessment. Many countries have jumped on the bandwagon, instead of allowing participation of citizen in making decisions. This is because to avoid the fear of being left behind from other countries. (Schummer 2007)(United States National Nanotechnology Initiative 2017)(Wolfson 2003) Identified risks Nano pollutants are the nanoparticles which are very small and can easily enter the lungs or can be absorbed by the skin of a human being. They can be natural or man-made. The highest risk is to the workers in the research and manufacturing process of nanotechnology. The technology can lead to privacy invasion as it includes virtually undetectable surveillance devices which lead to increasingly spy on governments, private citizens and corporations. It leads economic upheaval as molecular manufacturing includes assembling of products and one molecule at a time. It makes the product more precisely and low cost and leads to the confusion of whether it proves to a boom or bust to the global economy. Nanotech weapons can be possibly very small in size and are untraceable weapons which are made up of nanotechnology and they can be much smaller than the size of an insect with the help of the intelligence of a super computer. It can further lead to possible bio and nano technology arms race. (NAP 2011, FutureForAll 2017, Wright 2016) Identified benefits Nanotechnology can benefit the energy sector as it can transform the ways in which the energy has been obtained and used by us. It will make economical solar energy as it will be helpful in reducing construction cost of solar panel and other related equipment. It will open up new and innovative methods of storing and generating energy. It has the potential to bring major advantage in medicines as nanobots can be sent to the patients arteries to clear many blockages. Surgeries will become accurate and faster and will lead to repairing of injuries cell by cell. Damaged genes can be fixed, drug production can be refined, drugs can be tailored at a molecular level with the objective of making them effective and reducing the associated side effects. All this can be done by using nanotechnology. Once the availability and need of nanotechnology increase it will lead to low cost manufacturing of products thus making the products to be available at low cost and will be helpful in creating economic upheaval. (Nanogloss 2017)(Edwards 2017)(Nano phere 2014) Framework for Social Opportunity and Impact Risk Assessment (Huff and Martin 1995) Topics of Ethical Analysis Responsibility Ethical Issues Individual Professional Quality of Life Use of Power Risks Reliability Property Rights Privacy Equity Access Honesty Deception Levels of Social Analysis Individuals X X X X Communities Groups X X X Organisations X X X X X Cultures X X X Institutional Sectors X X X Nations X X X X X X Global X X X Social opportunity and impact risk assessment Likelihood of Occurring Likely to occur if creation of nanotechnology weapons is successful and possible. Nano and bio technology arms race. Uncontrollable and unpredictable behaviour of nanotechnology devices. Privacy invasion as a spy on governments, private citizens and corporations. Can likely to occur when it is going to gain recognition. Economic upheaval as it leads to the confusion of boom or bust to the global economy. Likely to occur as the particles are very small. Nano pollutants can easily enter lungs and can be absorbed by the skin. LOW LOW Opportunity / Impact / Consequence HIGH Incidental Minor Significant Major Severe Local, small-scale, easily reversible change on social characteristics or values of the communities of interest or communities can easily adapt or cope with change. Local small-scale opportunities emanating from the project that the community can readily pursue and capitalize on. Short-term recoverable changes to social characteristics and values of the communities of interest or community have substantial capacity to adapt and cope with change. Short-term opportunities emanating from the project. Medium-term recoverable changes to social characteristics and values of the communities of interest or community have some capacity to adapt and cope with change. Medium-term opportunities emanating from the project. Long-term recoverable changes to social characteristics and values of the communities of interest or community have limited capacity to adapt and cope with change. Long-term opportunities emanating from the project Irreversible changes to social characteristics and values of the communities of interest or community have no capacity to adapt and cope with change. Legend: Low Social Impact or Opportunity Medium Social Impact or Opportunity High Social Impact or Opportunity Table 2 - Social opportunity and risk categorisation Social impact assessment guideline Recommendations In line with the above stated general and specific ethical issues, some recommendations are drawn so that the identified concerns of ethical issues can be resolved for better results to the business, people and society. Below are some of the recommendations which can help in resolving the ethical issues of nanotechnology for a better future in the field of technology- Products that are based on nanoparticles and nanostructured composites are already available in the market and some of them are in the pipeline, it is recommended that there is a need to define new standards with the objective of safety testing concerns of these products and their erosion and also these standards should be made basic for new regulations. Moreover, there is a need to conduct a research in nanoparticle toxicology as it was a type of much too long neglected research. In addition to this, research has to be conducted in the methods for making nanoparticles safe by encapsulation and surface treatment. With the objective of coping up and addressing the issue of control and responsibility over new nanotechnology devices, it is recommended that strict regulations are required to be introduced which will help in defining the level of necessary control possessed by the human. The scope will be defining the level of tasks allowed by devices and will also assign clear reporting responsibilities to the users and producers of nanotechnology devices. It is also recommended that the new devices which are being developed have to be accompanied with methods and instruments which can further help in disabling and detecting these nanotechnology devices. IT is also recommended that ethics education should be made compulsory in science education so that students of all the countries are well aware of the ethical concerns of technology specifically nanotechnology right from the beginning. It is also recommended that rather giving so much hype to the term nanotechnology it is necessary to evaluate the pros and cons of diverse technologies involved in the fuzziness of this diverse term. It is also recommended that there is a need to assess the world economic impact of each and every nanotechnology, in a case any country is affected, they have to prepare themselves well in advance and respond to RD and economic programs. The affected countries should focus on the RD which helps in making use of their domestic resources. It is recommended that the countries should research technological substitutes of the technologies which depend on their resources with the objective of tapping the economic effects those substitutes can have. Readers Guide Information and communication Technology professionals are the intended audience of this document and it is possible assuming that some relevant background of nanotechnology is known to the readers. However, in line with the readers who are not much aware of the topic will be able to know what nanotechnology is all about after having a glimpse of this section. Reference 1- (Rathbun and Cornell, What is Nanotechnology? 2005) Reference 2- (Nanowerk 2017) Reference 3- (Filipponi and Sutherland 2017) All the above listed citation will help the reader in guiding what nanotechnology is all about, what does it mean, the history of nanotechnology, applications and implications of nanotechnologies, its benefits to the environment, society, energy sector, and information and communication technology. From reading the above listed references, one will be able to have sufficient knowledge about what nanotechnology is and what is its importance in the modern society and technology field. Methodology The methodology used to create this social impact assessment is that secondary research and secondary data have been used to collect data and information about the nanotechnology. We have used secondary research as it is refined, precise, accurate and up to date. Secondary data allows using precise information and there is no involvement of fake data and knowledge to be posted online which has helped us in creating a report with most accurate data and information up to our best knowledge. References Azoulay, David, Rye Senjen, and Guillermo Foladori. 2012. Social and Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology Development in the Asia Pacific Region. IPEN. Center for Nanotechnology . 2017. Nanotechnology Society. Accessed May 12, 2017. https://www.cns.ucsb.edu/about/nanotechnology-society. Edwards, Clare. 2017. Advantages Disadvantages of Nanotechnology. Accessed May 11, 2017. https://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-nanotechnology-37398.html. Filipponi, Luisa, and Duncan Sutherland. 2017. "Nano Technologies." FutureForAll. 2017. Nanotechnology Risks. Accessed May 11, 2017. https://googleweblight.com/i?u=https://www.futureforall.org/nanotechnology/risks.htmgrqid=z2VJvZEkhl=en-IN. GreenFacts. 2017. What are the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles? Accessed May 12, 2017. https://copublications.greenfacts.org/en/nanotechnologies/l-3/3-nanoparticle-properties.htm#0p0. Mandal, Dr Ananya. 2017. Properties of Nanoparticles. Accessed May 12, 2017. https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Properties-of-Nanoparticles.aspx. Nano phere. 2014. Nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Accessed may 11, 2017. https://nanosphere.gu.se/nanotechnology---benefits-and-risks. Nanogloss. 2017. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nanotechnology. Accessed May 11, 2017. https://nanogloss.com/nanotechnology/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-nanotechnology/#axzz4gn7hjTTC. Nanowerk. 2017. What is nanotechnology? Definition. Accessed May 12, 2017. https://www.nanowerk.com/nanotechnology/introduction/introduction_to_nanotechnology_1.php. NAP. 2011. Risks Associated with Nanotechnology. Accessed may 11, 2017. https://googleweblight.com/i?u=https://www.nap.edu/read/13037/chapter/5grqid=gwYHWT3shl=en-IN. Rathbun, Lynn, and Cornell. 2005. What is Nanotechnology? june. Accessed May 12, 2017. https://www.nnin.org/news-events/spotlights/what-nanotechnology. Rathbun, Lynn, and Nancy Heally. 2005. "What Is Nanotechnology?" Accessed May 12, 2017. https://www.seas.virginia.edu/admin/diversity/k12/files/NNIN-What-Is-Nanotechnology.pdf. Schummer, Joachim. 2007. "Identifying Ethical Issues of Nanotechnologies." Nanotechnologies, Ethics, and Politics. 79-98. United States National Nanotechnology Initiative. 2017. Ethical, legal and socitel issues. Accessed May 11, 2017. https://www.nano.gov/you/ethical-legal-issues. Wolfson, Joel Rothstein. 2003. Social and Ethical Issues in Nanotechnology: Lessons from Biotechnology and Other High Technologies. Mary Ann Liebert. Wright, Paul FA. 2016. "Potential risks and benefits of nanotechnology: perceptions of risk in sunscreens." The Medical Journal of Australia 204 (10): 369-370. https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2016/204/10/potential-risks-and-benefits-nanotechnology-perceptions-risk-sunscreens.
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